Spring+Mybatis实现动态SQL查询

在报表类应用中,通常需要根据不同的维度去组合复杂的查询条件,然后构造SQL去执行查询。如果只是通过在程序中简单地拼接SQL语句,工作量会非常大,而且代码可能也非常难以维护。Mybatis支持动态SQL查询功能,可以通过配置动态的SQL来简化程序代码中复杂性,不过,这个颇有点XML编程的韵味,通过XML来处理复杂的数据判断、循环的功能,其实也很好理解。

准备工作

下面,我们首先创建一个MySQL示例表,如下所示:

CREATE TABLE `traffic_info` (
  `id` int(11) NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
  `domain` varchar(64) NOT NULL,
  `traffic_host` varchar(64) NOT NULL,
  `month` varchar(8) NOT NULL,
  `monthly_traffic` int(11) DEFAULT '0',
  `global_traffic_rank` int(11) DEFAULT '0',
  `native_traffic_rank` int(11) DEFAULT '0',
  `rank_in_country` varchar(64) DEFAULT NULL,
  `address` varchar(200) DEFAULT NULL,
  `email` varchar(50) DEFAULT NULL,
  `traffic_type` int(2) DEFAULT '-1',
  `status` int(2) DEFAULT '0',
  `created_at` date DEFAULT NULL,
  `updated_at` timestamp NOT NULL DEFAULT CURRENT_TIMESTAMP ON UPDATE CURRENT_TIMESTAMP,
  `f1` varchar(255) DEFAULT NULL,
  `f2` varchar(255) DEFAULT NULL,
  `f3` varchar(255) DEFAULT NULL,
  PRIMARY KEY (`id`),
  UNIQUE KEY `idx_traffic` (`domain`,`month`,`traffic_type`)
) ENGINE=MyISAM AUTO_INCREMENT=1 DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8;

这个表用来存储域名的流量信息,流量信息我们从互联网上像Alexa、Compete、Quantcast等提供商获取,通过Crawler抓取的方式实现。我们先从简单的查询做起,只是根据某个字段进行查询,说明如何配置使用Mybatis,这里面也包含如何与Spring进行集成。

配置实践

下面是用到的一些资源的定义:

  • org.shirdrn.mybatis.TrafficInfo类

该类对应于traffic_info表中一条记录的数据,我们简单取几个字段,如下所示:

package org.shirdrn.mybatis;

import java.io.Serializable;

public class TrafficInfo implements Serializable {
    
     private static final long serialVersionUID = -8696613205078899594L;
     int id;
     String domain;
     String month;
     int monthlyTraffic;
    
     public int getId() {
          return id;
     }
     public void setId(int id) {
          this.id = id;
     }
     public String getDomain() {
          return domain;
     }
     public void setDomain(String domain) {
          this.domain = domain;
     }
     public String getMonth() {
          return month;
     }
     public void setMonth(String month) {
          this.month = month;
     }
     public int getMonthlyTraffic() {
          return monthlyTraffic;
     }
     public void setMonthlyTraffic(int monthlyTraffic) {
          this.monthlyTraffic = monthlyTraffic;
     }
    
     @Override
     public String toString() {
          return "[id=" + id + ", domain=" + domain + ", month=" +
                    month + ", monthlyTraffic=" + monthlyTraffic + "]";
     }
    
}
  • org.shirdrn.mybatis.mapper.TrafficInfoMapper接口类

该类定义了一个与SQL配置进行映射的基本操作,实际的SQL配置有专门的XML文件来进行配置。该接口定义了如下操作:

package org.shirdrn.mybatis.mapper;

import java.util.List;
import java.util.Map;

import org.shirdrn.mybatis.TrafficInfo;

public interface TrafficInfoMapper {

     /**
     * 根据指定id去查询记录,结果至多只有一条
     * @param id
     * @return
     */
     TrafficInfo getTrafficInfo(int id);
    
     /**
     * 根据指定的domain参数查询记录,返回一个记录的列表
     * @param domain
     * @return
     */
     List<TrafficInfo> getTrafficInfoList(String domain);
    
     /**
     * 根据一个 字段domain进行查询,但是存在多个domain的值,传入一个数组
     * @param domains
     * @return
     */
     List<TrafficInfo> getMultiConditionsList(String[] domains);
    
     /**
     * 根据多个字段进行查询,每个字段可能有多个值,所以参数是Map类型
     * @param conditions
     * @return
     */
     List<TrafficInfo> getMapConditionsList(Map<String, Object> conditions);

}

上面接口中定义的操作,一个比一个复杂,我们通过这一系列操作来说明在Mybatis中如果使用各种查询功能。

  • org/shirdrn/mybatis/mapper/TrafficInfoMapper.xml映射配置文件

这个文件TrafficInfoMapper.xml对应了上面的org.shirdrn.mybatis.mapper.TrafficInfoMapper中定义的操作,通过XML的方式将对应的SQL查询构造出来,这个是Mybatis的核心功能。该文件的内容示例如下所示:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?> 
<!DOCTYPE mapper PUBLIC "-//mybatis.org//DTD Mapper 3.0//EN" "http://mybatis.org/dtd/mybatis-3-mapper.dtd">

<mapper namespace="org.shirdrn.mybatis.mapper.TrafficInfoMapper">
     <resultMap type="TrafficInfo" id="tfMap">
          <id property="id" column="id" />
          <result property="domain" column="domain" />
          <result property="month" column="month" />
          <result property="monthlyTraffic" column="monthlyTraffic" />
     </resultMap>
    
     <select id="getTrafficInfo" resultType="TrafficInfo" parameterType="int">
          SELECT * FROM domain_db.traffic_info WHERE id = #{id}
     </select>
    
     <select id="getTrafficInfoList" resultType="TrafficInfo" parameterType="string">
          SELECT * FROM domain_db.traffic_info WHERE domain = #{domain}
     </select>
    
     <select id="getMultiConditionsList" resultMap="tfMap">
          SELECT * FROM domain_db.traffic_info WHERE domain IN
          <foreach collection="array" index="index" item="domain" open=" (" separator="," close=")"> 
             #{domain} 
         </foreach>
     </select>
    
     <select id="getMapConditionsList" resultMap="tfMap">
          SELECT * FROM domain_db.traffic_info WHERE domain IN
          <foreach collection="domains" index="index" item="domain" open=" (" separator="," close=")"> 
             #{domain} 
         </foreach>
         AND status = 0 AND month IN
         <foreach collection="months" index="index" item="month" open=" (" separator="," close=")"> 
             #{month} 
         </foreach>
     </select>

</mapper> 

如果你之前用过ibatis,应该很熟悉上面这个配置文件。上面:
namespace指定该SQL映射配置文件的Mapper接口类,其中定义了基本的SQL查询操作(以我们给出的例子为例);
resultMap中的type的值这里是一个别名,当然也可以使用对应的具体类全名(包名+类名),我们会在Mybatis的总的映射配置文件中进行配置,详见后面说明;
select是查询SQL的配置,可以通过不同的元素进行动态构造,如if、foreach等;

  • Mybatis全局映射配置文件sqlMapConfig.xml

该文件可以指定数据库连接池配置、别名配置、SQL映射配置文件组等内容,这里示例的配置内容如下所示:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?>
<!DOCTYPE configuration PUBLIC "-//mybatis.org//DTD Config 3.0//EN"
"http://mybatis.org/dtd/mybatis-3-config.dtd">

<configuration>
     <typeAliases>
          <typeAlias type="org.shirdrn.mybatis.TrafficInfo" alias="TrafficInfo" />
     </typeAliases>
     <mappers>
          <mapper resource="org/shirdrn/mybatis/mapper/TrafficInfoMapper.xml" />
     </mappers>
</configuration>
  • Spring配置文件applicationContext.xml
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
     xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns:context="http://www.springframework.org/schema/context"
     xmlns:aop="http://www.springframework.org/schema/aop" xmlns:tx="http://www.springframework.org/schema/tx"
     xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans

http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans-3.0.xsd


http://www.springframework.org/schema/context


http://www.springframework.org/schema/context/spring-context-3.0.xsd


http://www.springframework.org/schema/aop


http://www.springframework.org/schema/aop/spring-aop-3.0.xsd


http://www.springframework.org/schema/tx


http://www.springframework.org/schema/tx/spring-tx-3.0.xsd">

     <bean
          class="org.springframework.beans.factory.config.PropertyPlaceholderConfigurer">
          <property name="systemPropertiesModeName" value="SYSTEM_PROPERTIES_MODE_OVERRIDE" />
          <property name="ignoreResourceNotFound" value="true" />
          <property name="locations">
               <list>
                    <value>classpath*:/proxool.properties</value>
               </list>
          </property>
     </bean>

     <context:component-scan base-package="org.shirdrn.mybatis" />

     <aop:aspectj-autoproxy proxy-target-class="true" />
     <aop:config proxy-target-class="true" />

     <bean id="dataSource" class="org.shirdrn.mybatis.utils.ProxoolDataSource">
          <property name="driver" value="${jdbc-0.proxool.driver-class}" />
          <property name="driverUrl" value="${jdbc-0.proxool.driver-url}" />
          <property name="user" value="${jdbc-0.user}" />
          <property name="password" value="${jdbc-0.password}" />
          <property name="alias" value="${jdbc-0.proxool.alias}" />
          <property name="prototypeCount" value="${jdbc-0.proxool.prototype-count}" />
          <property name="maximumActiveTime" value="${jdbc-0.proxool.maximum-active-time}" />
          <property name="maximumConnectionCount" value="${jdbc-0.proxool.maximum-connection-count}" />
          <property name="minimumConnectionCount" value="${jdbc-0.proxool.minimum-connection-count}" />
          <property name="simultaneousBuildThrottle"
               value="${jdbc-0.proxool.simultaneous-build-throttle}" />
          <property name="verbose" value="${jdbc-0.proxool.verbose}" />
          <property name="trace" value="${jdbc-0.proxool.trace}" />
          <property name="houseKeepingTestSql" value="${jdbc-0.proxool.house-keeping-test-sql}" />
          <property name="houseKeepingSleepTime" value="${jdbc-0.proxool.house-keeping-sleep-time}" />
          <property name="maximumConnectionLifetime"
               value="${jdbc-0.proxool.maximum-connection-lifetime}" />
     </bean>

     <bean id="dataSource0" class="org.jdbcdslog.ConnectionPoolDataSourceProxy">
          <property name="targetDSDirect" ref="dataSource" />
     </bean>

     <!-- http://mybatis.github.io/spring/getting-started.html -->
     <!-- http://mybatis.github.io/spring/zh/ -->
     <bean id="sqlSessionFactory" class="org.mybatis.spring.SqlSessionFactoryBean">
          <property name="dataSource" ref="dataSource0" />
          <property name="configLocation" value="classpath:sqlMapConfig.xml"/>
     </bean>
     <bean id="trafficInfoMapper" class="org.mybatis.spring.mapper.MapperFactoryBean">
          <property name="mapperInterface" value="org.shirdrn.mybatis.mapper.TrafficInfoMapper" />
          <property name="sqlSessionFactory" ref="sqlSessionFactory" />
     </bean>
     <bean id="trafficInfoService" class="org.shirdrn.mybatis.TrafficInfoService">
          <property name="trafficInfoMapper" ref="trafficInfoMapper" />
     </bean>

</beans>

简单说明一下:
dataSource使用的Proxool连接池组件;
sqlSessionFactory是Mybatis的SessionFactory,注入了前面获取到的dataSource,同时指定了Mybatis的总的映射配置文件classpath:sqlMapConfig.xml,属性名为configLocation;
trafficInfoMapper直接由Spring的org.mybatis.spring.mapper.MapperFactoryBean进行代理,需要注入属性mapperInterface(即我们定义的SQL Mapper操作的接口类)和sqlSessionFactory(前面的SessionFactory实例);
trafficInfoService是我们最终在其中进行调用的服务类,注入了我们定义的SQL Mapper接口类的实例trafficInfoMapper。

  • org.shirdrn.mybatis.TrafficInfoService服务类

为简单起见,我们就不定义服务接口了,直接在该类中实现,调用SQL Mapper中预定义的SQL查询操作,实现代码如下所示:

package org.shirdrn.mybatis;

import java.util.List;
import java.util.Map;

import org.shirdrn.mybatis.mapper.TrafficInfoMapper;

public class TrafficInfoService {

     private TrafficInfoMapper trafficInfoMapper;
    
     public void setTrafficInfoMapper(TrafficInfoMapper trafficInfoMapper) {
          this.trafficInfoMapper = trafficInfoMapper;
     }

     public TrafficInfo getTrafficInfo(int id) {
          return trafficInfoMapper.getTrafficInfo(id);
     }
    
     public List<TrafficInfo> getTrafficInfoList(String domain) {
          return trafficInfoMapper.getTrafficInfoList(domain);
     }
    
     public List<TrafficInfo> getMultiConditionsList(String[] domains) {
          return trafficInfoMapper.getMultiConditionsList(domains);
     }
    
     List<TrafficInfo> getMapConditionsList(Map<String, Object> conditions) {
          return trafficInfoMapper.getMapConditionsList(conditions);
     }

}

按照上面的配置,我们就能够实现从单个字段的查询,到多个字段的组合复杂查询。可以通过与实际编写代码来控制这些逻辑相比较,使用Mybatis可能配置上相对复杂一些,但是或得到的好处是非常多的,如代码可维护性好,看起来配置比较直观,出错的几率会大大减小。实际上,如果熟练的这种配置方式,就会在实际开发过程中,更好地去处理更加复杂的统计查询条件的组合逻辑。

测试用例

测试用例可以检测我们上面的配置是否生效,实现代码:

package org.shirdrn.mybatis;

import java.util.Arrays;
import java.util.HashMap;
import java.util.List;
import java.util.Map;

import org.junit.Test;
import org.junit.runner.RunWith;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.test.context.ContextConfiguration;
import org.springframework.test.context.junit4.SpringJUnit4ClassRunner;

@RunWith(SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.class)
@ContextConfiguration(locations = { "classpath:/applicationContext*.xml" })
public class TestTrafficInfoService {

     @Autowired
     private TrafficInfoService trafficInfoService;

     @Test
     public void getTraffic() {
          int id = 1196;
          TrafficInfo result = trafficInfoService.getTrafficInfo(id);
          System.out.println(result);
     }
    
     @Test
     public void getTrafficList() {
          String domain = "make-the-cut.com";
          List<TrafficInfo> results = trafficInfoService.getTrafficInfoList(domain);
          System.out.println(results);
     }
    
     @Test
     public void getMultiConditionsList() {
          String[] domains = new String[] {
                    "make.tv", " make-the-cut.com", "makgrills.com", "makino.com"
          };
          List<TrafficInfo> results = trafficInfoService.getMultiConditionsList(domains);
          System.out.println(results);
     }
    
     @Test
     public void getMapConditionsList() {
          String[] domains = new String[] {
                    "make.tv", " make-the-cut.com", "makgrills.com", "makino.com"
          };
          List<String> months = Arrays.asList(new String[] {
                    "201203", "201204", "201205"
          });
          Map<String, Object> conditions = new HashMap<String, Object>(2);
          conditions.put("domains", domains);
          conditions.put("months", months);
          List<TrafficInfo> results = trafficInfoService.getMapConditionsList(conditions);
          System.out.println(results);
     }

}

查询进阶

这里,给出一个实际的例子,是对每日报表的一个统计实例,为简单起见,只拿出2张表做LEFT JOIN连接。这个需求,要求查询时可以对每个维度取过得查询条件值,如对于维度osName,值可以使包含Android、IOS,对于另一个维度statDate,可以取最近2天(昨天和前天),等等,并且,这些组合条件可有可无。
对应的Mybatis映射配置文件,内容如下所示:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?> 
<!DOCTYPE mapper PUBLIC "-//mybatis.org//DTD Mapper 3.0//EN" "http://mybatis.org/dtd/mybatis-3-mapper.dtd">

<mapper namespace="org.shirdrn.data.mappers.DailyAppUserMapper">
     <resultMap id="dailyAppUserMap" type="DailyAppUser">
          <id property="id" column="id" />
          <result property="primaryCategoryId" column="primary_category_id" />
          <result property="primaryCategoryName" column="primary_category_name" />
          <result property="secondaryCategoryId" column="secondary_category_id" />
          <result property="secondaryCategoryName" column="secondary_category_name" />
          <result property="cooperationMode" column="cooperation_mode" />
          <result property="merchantId" column="merchant_id" />
          <result property="merchantName" column="merchant_name" />
          <result property="osName" column="osName" />
          <result property="channelId" column="channel_id" />
          <result property="channelName" column="channel_name" />
          <result property="version" column="version" />
          <result property="statDate" column="stat_date" />
          <result property="newUserOpen" column="new_user_open" />
          <result property="activeUserOpen" column="active_user_open" />
          <result property="activeUserPlay" column="active_user_play" />
          <result property="oldUserOpen" column="old_user_open" />
          <result property="oldUserPlay" column="old_user_play" />
          <result property="averageTime" column="average_time" />
          <result property="newUserAverageTime" column="new_user_average_time" />
          <result property="oldUserAverageTime" column="old_user_average_time" />
          <result property="newUserOpen2Retention" column="new_user_open_2retention" />
          <result property="newUserOpen3Retention" column="new_user_open_3retention" />
          <result property="newUserOpen7Retention" column="new_user_open_7retention" />
          <result property="newUserOpen15Retention" column="new_user_open_15retention" />
          <result property="newUserOpen30Retention" column="new_user_open_30retention" />
     </resultMap>

     <select id="getDailyAppUserListByPage" resultMap="dailyAppUserMap">
          <include refid="getDailyAppUserList"/>
          LIMIT #{offset}, #{limit}
     </select>
     
     <select id="getDailyAppUserListForReport" resultMap="dailyAppUserMap">
          <include refid="getDailyAppUserList"/>
     </select>
     
     <sql id="getDailyAppUserList" >
          SELECT 
               d.id AS id,
               d.primary_category_id AS primary_category_id,
               d.primary_category_name AS primary_category_name,
               d.secondary_category_id AS secondary_category_id,
               d.secondary_category_name AS secondary_category_name,
               d.cooperation_mode AS cooperation_mode,
               d.merchant_id AS merchant_id,
               d.osName AS osName,
               d.channel_id AS channel_id,
               (CASE WHEN d.channel_name IS NOT NULL THEN d.channel_name ELSE d.channel_id END) AS channel_name,
               d.version AS version,
               d.stat_date AS stat_date,
               d.new_user_open AS new_user_open,
               d.new_user_play AS new_user_play,
               d.active_user_open AS active_user_open,
               d.active_user_play AS active_user_play,
               d.old_user_open AS old_user_open,
               d.old_user_play AS old_user_play,
               d.average_time AS average_time,
               d.new_user_average_time AS new_user_average_time,
               d.old_user_average_time AS old_user_average_time,
               d.new_user_open_2retention AS new_user_open_2retention,
               d.new_user_open_3retention AS new_user_open_3retention,
               d.new_user_open_7retention AS new_user_open_7retention,
               d.new_user_open_15retention AS new_user_open_15retention,
               d.new_user_open_30retention AS new_user_open_30retention,
               d.uninstall_cnt AS uninstall_cnt,
               m.merchant_name AS merchant_name
          FROM daily_app_user d 
          LEFT JOIN merchant m ON d.merchant_id=m.id 
          WHERE d.stat_date = #{statDate}
          <if test="osNames!=null">
               AND d.osName IN
               <foreach collection="osNames" index="index" item="osName" open=" (" separator="," close=")">
                    #{osName}
               </foreach>
          </if>
          <if test="channelNames!=null">
               AND
               <foreach collection="channelNames" index="index" item="channelName" open=" (" separator=" OR " close=")">
                    (d.channel_name LIKE CONCAT('%', CONCAT(#{channelName}, '%')))
               </foreach>
          </if>
          <if test="versions!=null">
               AND d.version IN
               <foreach collection="versions" index="index" item="version" open=" (" separator="," close=")">
                    #{version}
               </foreach>
          </if>
          <if test="merchantNames!=null">
               AND
               <foreach collection="merchantNames" index="index" item="merchantName" open=" (" separator=" OR " close=")">
                    (m.merchant_name LIKE CONCAT('%', CONCAT(#{%merchantName%}, '%')))
               </foreach>
          </if>
          <if test="primaryCategories!=null">
               AND d.primary_category_id IN
               <foreach collection="primaryCategories" index="index" item="primaryCategory" open=" (" separator="," close=")">
                    #{primaryCategory}
               </foreach>
          </if>
          <if test="secondaryCategories!=null">
               AND d.secondary_category_id IN
               <foreach collection="secondaryCategories" index="index" item="secondaryCategory" open=" (" separator="," close=")">
                    #{secondaryCategory}
               </foreach>
          </if>
          <if test="cooperationModes!=null">
               AND d.cooperation_model IN
               <foreach collection="cooperationModes" index="index" item="cooperationMode" open=" (" separator="," close=")">
                    #{cooperationMode}
               </foreach>
          </if>
     </sql>
     
</mapper> 

上述映射配置对应的Mapper定义,接口如下所示:

package org.shirdrn.data.mappers;

import java.util.List;
import java.util.Map;

import org.shirdrn.data.beans.DailyAppUser;

public class DailyAppUserMapper {

     List<DailyAppUser> getDailyAppUserListByPage(Map<String, Object> conditions);
     List<DailyAppUser> getDailyAppUserListForReport(Map<String, Object> conditions);
}

需要说明的是,如果多个表,一定要设置好Mapper映射配置中每个select元素的resultMap属性,属性值就是前部分的resultMap定义的id。如果只从单个表查询数据,完全可以使用resultType,对应resultMap元素中配置的type属性所指定的别名。
实际上,我们需要通过Map来传递参数,也就是把查询的条件值都收集起来,然后放到Map中,示例如下:

     Map<String, Object> conditions = new HashMap<String, Object>();
     if(osNames != null) {
          conditions.put(DailyAppUserMapper.KEY_OS_NAMES, osNames);
     }
     if(channelNames != null) {
          conditions.put(DailyAppUserMapper.KEY_CHANNEL_NAMES, channelNames);
     }
     if(versions != null) {
          conditions.put(DailyAppUserMapper.KEY_VERSIONS, versions);
     }
     if(merchantNames != null) {
          conditions.put(DailyAppUserMapper.KEY_MERCHANT_NAMES, merchantNames);
     }
     if(primaryCategories != null) {
          conditions.put(DailyAppUserMapper.KEY_PRIMARY_CATEGORIES, primaryCategories);
     }
     if(secondaryCategories != null) {
          conditions.put(DailyAppUserMapper.KEY_SECONDARY_CATEGORIES, secondaryCategories);
     }
     if(cooperationModes != null) {
          conditions.put(ChannelDayMapper.KEY_COOPERATION_MODES, cooperationModes);
     }

上面对应的DailyAppUserMapper中定义的一些Key常量名称,要和Mapper配置文件中foreach元素的collection属性值一致。

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评论(5): “Spring+Mybatis实现动态SQL查询

  1. 讲解言简意赅,很容易懂。

    对 “流量信息我们从互联网上像Alexa、Compete、Quantcast等提供商获取,通过Crawler抓取的方式实现。” 这个很感兴趣。

  2. 非常清晰明了。但有一点想要请教,如果是在做统计的时候,需要多个表联合查询呢?如果多表分别在不同多schema中呢?而具体的知道其中一个schema1是A,而schema2具体是什么,是个变量,这要怎么去写mapping呢?
    非常纠结这点。。。。期待您的回答

  3. 大神,能上传一点流量数据吗?上传到百度网盘上,我自己去下载。麻烦你了,大神。我不会在线抓取数据。

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